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1/2009 
  1/2009
: 2008   2007   2006   2005   
2004   2003   2002
. .
  -







,

³­ ­, 1929 , , ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ . ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ 1929 1933 , ­­ ­­ . ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ 44 %, ­    61 %. ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ 90%. ­ ­­ ­ ­­ 30 ­.

­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ 1 ­­ ­ . ­­­­ 1936 . "­­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­" ­­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­, . ­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­, ­­­, ­ ­, ­­ ­­  ­­­ ­­­­. ­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­, ­­­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­­, "­­". ­­­­­ , ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ , ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ , ­ ­ ­ ­­­. ­­­, ­, ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ . ­, ­ ­­, ­­, ­­ ­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­  ­ ­ ­­­­, ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­.

­­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ , ϳ­ ­, ­­ ­ ­ , ­­ ­, ͳ­­, , ­ . ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ 10 ­ ­­­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­. ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ , ­ '­, ' . ­, ­­ ­, ̳­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ , ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­.

­ ­ ­ ­ . ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ (­ ­ ­­). ­­   ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­: ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­: ­­ ­­­­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­. ­­: , ­ ­, ­, ­­ ­­  ­­­ ­­­­ . . ­. , ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­   ̳­­ ­­ (), ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ().

­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ 2008 20? (­ ­ ­­). ­ ­ ­­ ­, ­­, ­­, ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ (­­ ­­­ ­­­).

ͳ, ­­­ , ­­ 2008 . ­­ ­, ­ ­­, ­­­ ­, ­­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ , ­ (­) ­ ­­ 10 . 1998 . 147. ­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­. ­ ­ ­­­ ­­: " !" ­­, ­ ­­­, ­­ 2008 . ( .):

­­ , ­­, ­ ­­. ­, ­­, ­­ ­ ­­ , , ­ 10 . ­, ­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­ ­­­, 200 ­    ­. ­ ­ ­ ­, ­­­ ­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­䳿 㳿. ­ ­ , ­­ ­. 70 %  ­­ ­­­­ 3 ­. ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­­­, ­ ­   0,005 ., 5 .

­­­ ­ ­ , ­­­ , ­­ 䳿. ­­, ­ ­­­­ ­ "Leman brothers" ­­ ­ 3 ­ ­. ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ "Chase Manhetten bank", "Citi Corporation", "Bank of America", "J. . Morgan and Co", "Security Pacific Corporanion", "Chemical Bank", '­ ­­­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ . ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­, ­­­ . ­, ­ '­­­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­. ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­, ­ . ­­ ­, ­ ­­­­, ­ ­­­, 1,4 ., , ­, , ­ ­­ ­­­, ­, ­ , ­, ­, ­ ­ ­­. ³ ­­­­­ ­ ; ­ ­ , ­ ­­, '­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­. г­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­   ­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­.

­ ­ ­­­­ , ­, ­, ­ ­­­­­ ­. ­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­   ­­ ­­­. ³­ ­, ­­ ­. ­­ ­ ­­­­­­ ­­­ , ­­­ ­­, ­ ­­­­­ ­­­­ ­. ­­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­­­­­ ­­ , ­ ­ ­ ­ ­; ­­. ­­­ ­­ ­. " ­­?" ", ­­". ­, ­­­ ­    ­­ ­ ­ , ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ' . . ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­. ( "­" "­" ), , , ­­. ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­, ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­. ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­­­ ­­, ­­­­­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ 䳿, ­­ 7 .,    ­ ­, ­ ­­­, ­­­­­ ­­­­­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­.

­­ ­. ­­­ 1929 ., ­­­ ­, ­­ , ­­­ ­, ­ ­ ­ ­­­­­, ­ ­, ­­­. , ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­­­­­   ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­. ­­ ­­, ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­, ­­­ ­­ , ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ , ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ . ­­, ­­­­­­­­ ­, ­ , ­­ ­­ ­.

­­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­­, ­ ­­­­, ­­ ­ , ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­ , ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­. ­­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­­, ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ( ­ ­­ ­­, ­­­­, , 볺 ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ) ­­­­ ­­­ . , " ­", " " ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­. ­ ­­­ ­­­ , ­­ ­­ ­ ­.

­­­­ ­   ­ ­ ­­­; ­ ­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­, , , ­­­­­ , ­ ­­­­­. , ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­   " ­­­ " " ". ­­­ ­ "­ ", ­­ " ­­­ ", ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­, ­­ ­. ­­ " " ­ ­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­  52 ­­­ . ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­. ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­ 50 . 6 . ­, ­­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ , ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­, ­­ . ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ "­", ­ 815 ­­­. ­­ ­­­ ­­­ . ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­­.

­­­, ( ­­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­) ­­­ , ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ (), ­ ­ ­. ­ ­­ ­ (­­­), ­­볿 ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­ ­­. , ­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­. ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ 0 0,25 %.

­ ­­­. ­­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ . ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ . ­ ­ ­ ­ . ϳ ­­ ­­­­ ­ 100 ­ ­­ 100 ­ , ­ ­­­­, ­ . , ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­. , ­­ ­­­ ­. ­ ղ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­ , ­­­ ­­ "­­­" (0,4 ) 1 ­. ­ 1 ­ ­­­ ­­ . ­, ­ ­ ­ ­ ­, ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­.

­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ . ­ ' ­­ ­­­ ­­­ : ­ 볿, ­­­­, ­ . ­ "­" ­  ­ ­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­   200    ­­ "­". ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­. ­ 8 ­­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­; ­­­ 23 ­. ­­ . ­­, ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ (­­) ­­ , , ­­ ­ ­­­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­. ­­ !

ҳ ­­­ ­ 1,5 ­­ ­­ . ­ ­ 100 ­­­ ­­, 䳿 ­, ­­ ­­   ­ ­, ­ ­­­ ­­­­    ­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ , ­­­ ­­­ ­ . ­­­ ' ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ 2009 . , ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ 9 ­. ­ 7,5 ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­. ­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­. ­ . ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­   400 ­.

­­, ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­. ³ ­­ , ­ ­, ­­­­ .

­? ­ ­ , ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­.

­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ . ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ 쳿 ­ ­ , ­ ­­­ 70 ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­.

­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ . ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ . ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­. ­ ­   ­, ­ ­ , ­ ­ 200 ­ ­­­ ( ­­ ­ 2000) ­­­­­ ­ ­ ­­­­, ­    ­­. ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­.

­­ ­, 2008 ­, ­ '­­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­­? ʳ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­­. (­­­­ ­ ­­ 11 ­ ­­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­. ­, ­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­­, ­, ­­ , ­.

­ ­­, ­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­ . ­? ­, ­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­­ ­­. ­­ ­­ ­­­ 2008 . ­­ ­ ­­­. ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­䳿, , ­, ­, ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­­­ ­ , ­ ­ 12,5 25 50 ­ ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­­ 185 ­ ­ , ­­ ­­ ­ ­.

­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­    ­ ­­ ­­­. ­­, ­ ­­­ 6000 2000 ­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ 100 ­ ­. ­­, ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­, ­­­ (­­) ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­­㳿 ­­ ­ ­ ­­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­, ­­ ­ , , ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­, ­ ­, ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­, ­­­. ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ , ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­. ­­ ­ , ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­   ­.

­­ ­­ ­­ ­ (­ ­­) ­ : 1 ­ ­ 5 ­ 50 . ­, ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­ . ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­ ­. ­, ­­. ­, ­­ ­ ­­­­, ­­. ­ ­ ­­ 241 48 . ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ 92 ­ 37 , ­ ­­ ­­ "­­" 6 ­ "­" 7 . ­­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­   ­­, , ­   ­­­ ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­? ­ , ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­, ­, . , ­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­.

­­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ . ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ , ­ 600 ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­­, ­­­­ . ­ ­ ­ ­ ­    ­ ­ ­, ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­   ­­ ­­ ­­­­. ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ (­, ­­­­ ­) ­­­, ­­ ­­­볿, ­, ­ ­­­, ­­ ­­ ­, ­­­ .

­ ­, ­ ­­­ ­­­: ­­ , ­­­ ­­ ­   ­, ­ ­­­   ­­, ( !) ­ ­, ­ ­, . ­, ­ ­­ ­   ­­­ ­ ­­ , ­­­, ­­ ­. ­­­­ , ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­­­.

­­ ­ , ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­   䳿, ­ ­­­ ­ ­, ­­­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ 14 . ­, ̳­­ ­­ () ­ , ­­­ ­­ 16,4 , ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­­ ­ ­. ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ , ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ () ­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ "­­­" ­ ­­­ ­­ 1,8 .

ֳ ­ ­ ­­­, ­    ­­­ ­­­ ­. ­­­­ ­ '­ ­ ­­­ , ­­­ ­ ­ , ­­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­, ­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­    150 . . , , ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ , ­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­ 250 . . 750 ., ­ ­­ ­ 150 . . ­ ­ ­ 250 . .

­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­. ­, ­ ­ ­­, ­, ­­ ­, ­­­­   ­ ­­ ­ . ­­, ­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­­, ­­, ­­ ­.

­­ ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ , ­ ­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­­ ­. ­­ ­. ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­­   ­­­­ ϳ­   ­­ ­ ­ 1 330 , ­   3 ­ 270 (­­ "­ ­­", 16 ­ 2008 ., . 6). ­­ ­­ , ­. ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ , ­­­: , , ­, ­, , ­. ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ad calendas graecas ( ­ ­), ­­ ­­ ­­.

­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­ ­ ­, ­­ . ­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­, ­­. ­­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­ , ­ ­ ­, ­ ­,  ­­ ­ ­䳿 ­­ ­. , ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­. ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­ 1932 ­, ­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­­­ (­糿 ­): "­­! ­ ­­­ ­ ­". ­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­   ­ ­ ­­, ­ ­ ­ ­, ­­­­­ ­­ (!), ­­­ , ­­ ­­­ ­. ­­­ . ­ ­­ " ­­". ­ ­­­­ ­ , , ­.

­ ­­­­­ ­ ­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­­, ­­­­­­ ­­­, ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­.



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