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1/2009 
  1/2009
: 2008   2007   2006   2005   
2004   2003   2002
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ŭʭȭֲ ϲܭ˲׭έ ҭ ɭ

. έӭ,

­­ ­, ­ ­, ­­ ­ 90 ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­, ­­­ ­. ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­   ­­­, ­­, ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­. ­­­ , ­­, ­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­.

­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­, ­­­ ­ . ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ , ­ ­ ­­ ­­ "­­ ­­".

 ­­­ ­­. ϳ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­­. ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­㳺 ­ . ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­ ­ ­­­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­­   ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ () , ­­­­, ­ ' ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­    [1].

­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­. ­­­ ­ ­ , , ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­­­­­ ­­, ­­ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ , ­­­ ­ ­ ­, ­­ ­.

­­, ­­ 1947 ­, ­­ ­­­ , ­ . ³ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ , ­­­­­­­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­ (­­), ­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­, ­­ ­­­­, ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­, ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ .

­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ , ­­ ­ ­. ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ . ³ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­, ­­­­­ ­­­, ­­ ­. ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­. ­ ­ ­ ­­­­­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­    (­­­­ ­­­ )   ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­. ­­­ ­ ­ (­) ­ ­ ­­­ ­ 1994 . ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­ [2].

­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ 1995 ., ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­ 21 ­­ ( ­­ ­ ­­­­­). ­­ ­ (­­ 1996 .) ­ ­ ­­­ , ­­ 13,7% ­ ­ ­­­ 46 ­­­ . ϳ ­ ­­­­ ­­ 1998 . ­­­­ ­ ­­­ , ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ .

   , ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ , ­­­ ­. ­ , ­ "­­­ ­­­", ­­­­ ­­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­­­ ­.

­­­­ ­­ 2000 ­ ­ ­­ ­ , ­­­ ­­­ ­­, ­ 3% ­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­ ­ . ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ , ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ .

­­­­ ­­­­ ­­, ­­ 2001 ., ­ ­­ ­ ­. ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­   ­­ ­ ­. ­­ 2003 ., ̳ ­ ­­­ 99 ­ . ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­. ­­ ( ) (), ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ 2000 ­, ­ ­, ­ ­­. ­­ ­­­­­   ­ ­ ­­ (Ѫ), ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ˳ ­.

­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ , ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­. ­­ . ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­. ϳ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ , ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ , ­­­ .

³, ­­. ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­, ­­­­­, 䳿 ­­­, ­­­­ ­­­­­­ ­­ ­­.

­ ­­­­, ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ , ­ ­­­­ . ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ 70%, ­, ­­ ­­ , ­, .

­­ . ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ 80 ­ XX . ­ ­­­­ ­­ , ­­­­ 1949 . ­­ ­ ­ ­­ , ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ . ­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ .

­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ '­ ­­ ­­­. ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ( 1949 1987 .) ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ , ­­ ­ . ­­ ­ ­ ­­­, , ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­­ ­­­. ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­.

­ 1987 . ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­. 1999 . ­ ­ ­ ­ ­, ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­. ϳ ­ ­­­ ­, 䳿 ­­ ­­­ ­ 31, ­­­ 1992 . ­ 246, 1996 .    371. ­­ ­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­­ XXI , ­­ ­ . ­­­ ­, ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ 22 , ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ [3].

­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­ , ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­.

­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­. ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ . ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­, ­­­ , ­­ ­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­.   ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­. ­ ­­­ ­­ , "­­­­"   ­­ ­­ , ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­.

­­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­. , ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­­ ­, 38 ­ ­­­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­­, ­­ . ­­­ ­­­­.

 ϳ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­. ­­, ­ ­ "̳­­ " 2000 . ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­ , ­ 2000 . Freedom House (­­­­ ­, ­­­­ ­) ­ ­­ ­ ­ 糿. ­­ Freedom House, ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ( ­­­ ­), ­ ­. Freedom House ­ ­ ­ ­­.

­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ , ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­: " ­­­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­, ̳­­ ­ ­ ­ ³­ ­­" [4].

­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­, ­ ­ ­, ­, ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­. ­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­, ' ­ ­ , ­ ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ , ­    ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­.



09881 | | |