-
1/2009 
  1/2009
: 2008   2007   2006   2005   
2004   2003   2002
  -







: ̲ Ѳ ֲ

,

­­­ ­­ ­­­ 20 ­­ 1639 ­. ­­­   ­ ­­­ , ­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­. , ­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ (­­) ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­. ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­. ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­­ , ­­­ , ­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­, ­­­, ­ ­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­, . ­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­­­, ­ ­, ­ ­ ­.

­­  ­, ­. ­ ­­ ­. ­ ­ ­­ ­, ­­­. ³ ­­, ­, ­ ­ ­. ­ ­ , ­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­­. ­, , ­ ­­ , ­­ ' ­ ­­­. ­­­.

­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­, 1674 ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­. ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­­. ­ ­­ ­ ѳ ­­ ­, ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­. ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ⺺. ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ⺺: ­­ ­­ ­ , ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­, ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­. ­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ '. ­ ­ ­­ .

­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­, ­­ ­­­.

­­ , ­­­ ­­­­, ­­ ­ ­ , ­­­­, ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­. ­ , ­ ⺺, ­­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­, ' ­. ⺺ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­. ϳ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­, ­ ­­­ ­­­, ­­ ­ . ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­, ­­­ ­, ­ ­.

ϳ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­: (­ ­ ­­) ­ , ­ 19 ­ . ­ ­­­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ , ­­­   ­­. ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ . ­­ ­ ­ ­ 20 ­.

­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ . ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­. ³­­ ­ ­⳺ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­: ­ ­­, ­ ­­, ­­, ­­ ­­ , ­, ­ ­. ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­쳿 ­ ­­. ­ ­­ , ­ ­­­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ , ­ ­­ ­­. ­­, ­ ­­­ ­­­ , ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­, ­­ ­ ­.

­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­; ­ ­­­ ­ ­, ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­; ­ ­­­ ­­, , ­­­ ­, ­­­ ­ , ­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­­­. ­­ ­ ­­­ . ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ . ­ ­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­. ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­­. ­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­. ³ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­.

­ ­­ ­­ ­­, ­­­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­ , ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­. ­ ( 1696 .) ­, ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­­, , ­ ­, ­ ­, ­­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ . ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­   '­­ ­­ ­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­, ­­­. ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­. ҳ­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­ . ­ ­, ­ ­­­ ­. ­ ­­, ­­ ­­­, ­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­.

­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ , ­ 1689 ­. ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­, ­­­, ­­­, ­­­. ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­. ­ ­­­ ­­­­. ­ ­ ­­­.

­­ ­ 1689 ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­. ­ ­­­ ­­, ' ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ . ­ ­ ­ ­­. ³­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­. ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­' ­­.

­­ ­­ . ­ ­­­ ­ , ­­ ­ ­­, ­­­ ­ ­­: ­ ­­ ­, ­­­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­ ­, ­ ­.

­­­ , ­­. ­­­ ­­­­­­. ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­. ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­.

­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­­­ ­. ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­­ ­. ϳ 17 ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­. ­­ ­­: ­­ ­­ , ­­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­.

­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­. ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­, ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ . ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­, ­­­­ ­­, ­­ ­.

­ 1689 ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ . ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ . ­­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­ . ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­,   ­ ­ ­  ­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­. ­­, ­­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­ , ­. ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ '­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­. ­­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ , ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­.

­­­ , , ­­ ­­, ­, ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­, '­ ­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­, ­­ , ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­. ³­­­ ­ ­­­. ­ ­­­­ '­, , ­­ ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­. 1691 ­­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­­. ­­ ­­ , ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­.

­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­ ­, ­ ­ " ­ ­­­ ­­". ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­­­ ­ , ­ ­, ­ , ­­­, ­­­­, ­ ­­ ­? ­­ ­, ­­ ­, ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­, ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­­, ­­­ ­­­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­. ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ , ­­ ­, ­­ . ­ ­­ ­. ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­. ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­.

ϳ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ '­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­ ѳ. ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ , ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­⳺ ­­ ­­­ ­. ϳ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­. ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­. ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­.

­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ , ­­­ ­ ­. ­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­­­ , ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­ ­. , ­­, ­­ , ­ ­­ ­­, ­­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­. ­, ­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­­­.

­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ . ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­. ³ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ . ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­. ­­ ­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­.

­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­­, ­­ , ­­ ­, ­­ , ­­, ­­ ­ ­­­, ­­ ­. ϳ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­: ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­, , ­­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­.

­ 1694 ­ '­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­: ­ ­ ­? ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­ , ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ , ­­­ ­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­.

­­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­­, ­. ­­ ­­­, ­ ­­­. ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ , ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ . ³ ­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ( ­­). ­­­­ ­. ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ϳ . ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­⳺ , ­ ­ ­ ­­ ³­ ­­­­­­ ­­­­­. ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ 20 ­ ­.

­­ ­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­. ­­­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­­. ­­ ­­, ­­­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­ ­.

­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ . ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­, ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­, '­ ­ ­ ­. ­ ­­, ­­­­. ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ .

XII, ­ ­, ­­ 䳿 ­. ϳ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ . ­­­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­, ­, ­ ­­­ ­­. ­­­ ­ ­­­. ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­   . ֳ­, ­ ­­ ­­ 䳿.

­­ ­­­ ­ ­. ­­, ­­­, , ­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­ ­­  ­­. ­­, '­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ . ­­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­ , ­­ ­­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­.

̳ ­ XII ­­ ­­­­ ­­­­, ­ , ­­. ³­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ . ­­­­ ­ ­­­: ­­­ ­­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­, , ­­­. ­­­­ ­­­­ , ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­.

­­ ­­­ ­­ '. ­ ­, ­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­, ­­, ­­: "­ ­ ­­­ ­ , ­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­ ­ , ­". ­­­­­­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­: "³ ­­ : ­­­ ­ ­ , 䳺­ ­ ... ³ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­. ³ ­­ ­, ­­, ­­­ ­­". ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­: " ­­    ­ ­ ­ ­­ (­­­ ­­.   . .). , ­­ , ­ ­­ ֳ­, ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­".

­ 1707 ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­. XII ­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­­­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­­­ , ­­­­, ͳ­­ , ­­ ­­ ­­­. ­­­ ­ . ­ ­ ­­­­ ­, ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­.

䳿 ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­ XII ­, ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­. ³ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ , ­ ­­­­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­, ­ . ­ , ­, ­, ­­ . ­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­. ³ ­­­ ­­­ ­ XII ­ ­. XII ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­. ­­ ­, ­­­­ ­­­ ­, ­­   ­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­ , ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­, ­­­­­ ­­ ­­­ 򳺿 ­.

­ ­­ ", ­" ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­. ­­ ­ , ­ , ­­ ­­, ­ ­ ' ϳ , ­­, ­­­ ­ ­.

­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­, ­­ , ­ . ­ ­ ­ ­­: ­ ­­­ ­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­ 㳿 ­ ­­­ ­ , ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­⳿?

­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ XII. ­ 4 ­­­ 1708 ­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­. ³ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­.

­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­. ³ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­. ³­­­ ­­­­ , ­­ ­: "­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­, ­ ­, ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­, ­ ­­­­, ­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­, ­­­­, ­, ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ". ­­­ ­­ 䳿 ­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­, ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ .

­ ­ ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­­­ ­­, ­ ­ . ³ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­. ­­ 7 8 ­­­. ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­, ­. ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­. , ­­ ­­­: "³ (­­) ­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­". ϳ ­­­ ­ ­.

­­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­, ­. ­ ­­­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­. ­­­ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­쳿, ­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­­, ­­ ­­­, ­­ "­­­" , ­­­­ ­­. 1917 ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­.

dz ­ ­ XII ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­. ­ ­ XII ­­, ­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­ . ̳ ­ ­ XII ­­­ ­ , ­ ­ ­.

­ ­­ ­­­ ѳ. ­ ­ ­ , ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ѳ . ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­. ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­.

ֳ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ѳ ­ ­­ ­ 23 ­­ 1709 ­. ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ , ­ ­­, ­­­   ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ 䳺, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­. ­­ ­­, ­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­.

­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ѳ. ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­­, ­­ ­­. ­­ ­­ ѳ ­­­ ­ ­. ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­: " ­­ ­­ , ­­ ­­ , ­­ ­­ ­ 䳿 ­ ­". ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­, "­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­".

27 ­ 1709 ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­ ­ . ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­, ­­­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ : " ­   ­ ­­ ­ ­­­". ­­ ­ ­ ­. ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­, ­­­­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ , ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­   ­­ ­ ­­.

ϳ ­­ ­ XII ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­. ­­­ ­­­­ ­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ( ), ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­­.

­­­ ­­ ­. ­­ ­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ , ­­. ­­­­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ XII ­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­.

­ ­ ­­­ , ­­ ­­ . ­­ ­ XII ­ ­­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­ ­­: ­­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­. ­­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­   300 ­ ­. ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ XII, ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­.

­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­   . ­­ ­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­­­­ ­ , ­­ ­ ­, . ­­ ­ 21 ­­ 1709 ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­. ­ , ­ ­­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­­­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­, ­­­­ .

­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­ . ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­.

­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ . ­­ ­ ­, ­, ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­. ­ ­­­ . ³ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­. ­, ­­­ ­­, ­ ­. ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­: "­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­".

­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­, ­, ­ ­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­­ ­­.

­­­, ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ . ­ ­­ ­ ­, ­­­ , ­­ ­­­­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­.

­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­. ­­ , ­ ­ ­ ­, ­­ . ­ ­, ­ ­­, ­ ­­. , ­, ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­, ­­ ­­ , ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­.

­ ­ ­­­ ­ ղ ­ . ³ ­ ­ 䳿, ­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­. ³ ­­­­ ­ ­­ . ­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­­ , ­ ­­ ­ ­, , ­­­, ­­. , ­ ­­, ­ , ­ ­ ­ ­­ . ­­, ­­ ­ .

­­ ­ ­­ ­­­, ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­. ³ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­㳿 ­ ­쳺. ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­: 1695 ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­, 1698 ­   ­­­ ­ ­­­, ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ , ­ ­ . ³ ­­ ­ 1700 . ­­ ­ ­ : "­", "ϳ", "­". ­ ­ ­­­­ ­볺 ­ ­, ­­ ­­ , , ­ ­ ­.



09881 | | |